What are vaginal tumors, their treatment and methods of diagnosis 2023


Vaginal cancer is a very rare type of tumor that occurs in the vagina, the muscular canal that connects the uterus to the rest of the external genitalia.

At a time when several types of cancer have penetrated and spread from other areas within the body to the vagina, cancer that begins in the vagina is called primary vaginal cancer.

Diagnosing and treating vaginal tumors at an early stage of time is a better chance of recovery and elimination, as vaginal cancer that spreads beyond the vagina is more difficult to treat malignant tumors.

Vaginal cancer symptoms

These are the clearest symptoms of vaginal cancer that begin to appear on the patient:

1. Abnormal vaginal bleeding

Vaginal cancer may cause abnormally heavy vaginal bleeding and its severity is as follows:

  • Heavy, severe and intolerable bleeding.
  • Vaginal bleeding that may occur at abnormal times, such as: after reaching the stage of menopause and the time between two menstrual cycles, and also after have intercourse.
  • Vaginal bleeding that lasts for a relatively long time.
  • vaginal discharge Which may contain blood for an unexplained reason.

2. Changes related to excretion and urination

Among the symptoms related to the tumor of the vagina, the sick woman notices specific changes in the occurrence of excretion and urination, such as:

  • Frequent going to the bathroom several times more than usual.
  • Constipation.
  • The presence of blood in the stool or urine.

3. Pain in some parts of the body

From what the patient notices with a tumor of the vagina, the appearance of some pain in different parts of the body, such as:

  • The pelvis, which gets worse, or may appear especially during: have intercourseurinating.
  • Bladder.
  • belly.
  • anal.

4. Other vaginal cancer symptoms

These are other symptoms, some of which may appear on a woman with a vaginal tumor with this type of cancer:

  • Vaginal discharge with a foul odor.
  • constant itch in the vagina.
  • The presence of an abnormal lump in the vaginal area and the doctor may feel its presence during the vaginal examination.
  • Swelling in the feet.
  • Always feeling full in the abdomen, pelvis, or anus.

Vaginal tumors and their treatment:

Your choices for treatment depend on the number of types of vaginal tumors and their treatment is represented by a number of factors in terms of its stages. The most important thing is by following up with the doctor, who can determine the appropriate method for you based on determining your goals of treatment as well as the side effects that you can tolerate. It guarantees the following


The types of surgeries that can be followed for vaginal tumors and their treatment include:

  • Excision of small tumors, it is limited only to the surface of the vagina, along with a small part of the healthy tissue that surrounds it to ensure that all cancer cells are removed.
  • Vaginectomy, in which it is important to remove a small part of the vagina, or the entire vagina (radical vaginectomy) to eliminate all of the cancer.
  • Removing most of the pelvic organs (pelvic emptying), which may include all options if the cancer has spread to all parts of the pelvic area, or if the vaginal tumor has recurred
    During the operation to remove the pelvic organs, this includes the bladder, ovaries, uterus, vagina, rectum, and the lower part of the colon. Intra-abdominal openings are made so that urine (urostomy) and stool (colostomy) can be removed from the gym and collected in the stoma bags.
  • Chemotherapy :

  • Chemotherapy uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. It’s not clear if chemotherapy is helpful for treating vaginal cancer. For this reason, chemotherapy is generally not used alone to treat vaginal cancer. Chemotherapy may be used during radiation therapy to enhance the effectiveness of the radiation.

Radiation therapy:

may be High-energy radiotherapy is used toVaginal tumors and their treatment Radiation, such as X-rays, to destroy cancer cells, or radiation can be provided in two ways:

  • External radiation:

  • This external radiation beam is directed directly to your entire abdomen or pelvic area, according to the extent of the spread of cancer, through the external radiation beam, starting by placing the patient on a table and then moving a large radiation machine around it until targeting the treated parts.
  • internal radiation:

  • During internal radiation (clear treatment), radioactive devices place seeds, wires, cylinders, or other materials inside the vagina, or the tissues around it, after a certain period of time, which removes the devices. Women with vaginal cancer may not receive At the very early stage, other than internal radiation. Where other patients receive internal radiation after undergoing external radiation.

Radiation can kill cancer cells quickly before they grow, but it can damage some nearby cells

Vaginal cancer types:

That there are many vaginal tumors and their treatment, which affects different types and many cells inside the vagina, which includes the following:

1. Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma:

And that it is one of the most common types of vaginal cancer, which is considered squamous cell carcinoma in about 70% of all cases, and this cancer is in the cells that surround the vagina near the vaginal area

This type may spread slowly and tend to be near where it started, but it can spread to other areas of the body, such as: liver Or the lungs, or the bones, and sometimes this type affects women at an old age, as over the age of 60 women and over nearly half of all new cases.

2. Vaginal adenocarcinoma

This type of vaginal cancer is in the glandular cells within the lining of the vagina that secrete mucus and other fluids, in about 15% of cases of vaginal tumors, usually affecting women over the age of 50, and what can spread to other parts, including the lungs and also, Thigh lymph nodes.

3. Clear cell carcinoma

Pure cell carcinoma is one of the rarest forms of adenocarcinoma and it is possible that it affects younger women whose mothers took a hormone called Diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the first months of pregnancy, which doctors prescribe In the fifties of the last century to stop abortion and all its other problems.

4. Vaginal melanoma

It constitutes one of the most rare types of tumors in the vagina with vaginal cancer and it accounts for about 9% of cases. Usually, melanoma occurs inside the outer part of the vagina, the cells that produce pigment or the melanocytes inside the vagina.

Causes of vaginal tumors

It is not clear that there is a cause for vaginal cancer, but in general, a tumor begins with the acquisition of healthy cells by a genetic mutation that may turn normal cells into abnormal cells.

As a result, healthy cells grow, defend and increase at a certain rate, and eventually become damaged and destroyed in a specific time. Cancer cells multiply and grow out of control, not damaged, abnormal cells deposited as a result of an internal mass (tumor).

Cancer cells invade the tissues close to the body, which can break away from the primary tumor and spread to any other part of the body (metastasis).

Vaginal tumor prevention

  • Ask your doctor about HPV vaccinations, as receiving the vaccine for HPV infection reduces the risk of developing vaginal polyps, and other cancers that are also associated with HPV. You should also consult your doctor if this HPV vaccine is suitable for you or not.
  • Undergo uterine polyp tests routinely. Vaginal hysterosalpingograms can detect for you cases of possible carcinogenesis in a vaginal tumor, so it must be monitored or treated to prevent the occurrence of vaginal tumor cancer, which some health organizations suggest starting to undergo tests for vaginal tumors primarily at the age of 21, which can be repeated every long time .
  • Practice safe sex: reduce the risk of vaginal polyps by taking measures to prevent sexually transmitted infections, such as using a condom every time
  • Quit smoking. If you don’t smoke, don’t smoke. If you smoke, you should talk to your doctor about quitting strategies.

In the end

We can say that we have talked about everything related to vaginal tumors and their treatment, which should follow up and explore the method and treatment that suits your case.

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