What are the ways to treat bladder tumors and how to diagnose them ? 2023


Bladder tumors are considered to be tumors of the bladder part. Bladder cancer may sometimes start by infecting the cells lining the bladder from the inside, and the elderly are usually affected, but this does not mean any exception for any age of infection. Here, treatment of bladder tumors and their types can be presented.

What is a bladder tumor:

Bladder tumors are the fourth most common type of tumor, which begins in the cells of the bladder, and the bladder is a hollow muscular organ in the lower abdomen where urine is stored.

Bladder cancer begins with cells (urothelial cells) that line the bladder inside, and urothelial cells inside the kidneys and tubes (ureters) that connect the kidneys and bladder. Urothelial tumors can also occur in the kidneys and ureters, but it is more common in the bladder.

The diagnosis of some bladder tumors begins at an early stage of the disease, and the tumors are highly treatable, but it is possible for bladder cancers to be treated in its early stages again successfully, and for this reason, people with bladder tumors usually need many follow-up examinations for years of After treatment to look for bladder cancer that can recur.

Bladder tumors treatment: 

The treatment of bladder tumors includes several methods as follows: –

chemical treatment:

Chemotherapy may use elimination drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy for bladder cancer usually involves two or more chemotherapy drugs that are used together.

Chemotherapy drugs may be taken:

  • Through a vein (through a vein): In In many cases, intravenous chemotherapy is used by cystectomy surgery to increase the chances of treating malignant tumors. It is possible to use chemotherapy to eliminate cancer cells that may remain after surgery in certain cases, which can be combined with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Directly into the bladder (intravesical therapy): During bladder chemotherapy, a tube is passed through the urethra directly into the bladder, placing chemotherapy in the bladder for a specified period of time before it is drained, and it can be used to treat superficial primary bladder tumors, in which cancer cells affect only the lining of the bladder but not the muscle tissue deep.

2. Radiation therapy:-

Radiation therapy may use high-energy beams to treat bladder tumors, such as X-rays, and protons to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy for bladder tumors moves around your body to precisely direct the energy beams to specific points.

Sometimes it is combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy to treat bladder tumors in specific cases, such as cases where surgery is not a possible or desirable option.

3. Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a drug treatment that, along with your immune system, helps destroy a tumor.

From which immunotherapy can be taken as follows:

  • Directly into the bladder (intravesical therapy). It may be confirmed by TURBT for the treatment of bladder tumors with small segments that have not reached the intramuscular layers of the bladder, and this therapy uses Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), it is an updated vaccine to prevent disease Tuberculosis, which causes Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), an immune system reaction that directs cells to fight germs into the bladder.
  • Through a vein (intravenously).Intravenous immunotherapy can be given to treat advanced or recurring bladder tumors after initial treatment. Many immunotherapy drugs are available, which help the immune system to detect and fight cancer cells.

2. Targeted therapy

Treatment drugs are used to target specific weaknesses that reside within cancer cells. By targeting these weaknesses, targeted drug therapies can cause cancer cells to die. This will examine your cancer cells to see if targeted therapy might be effective.

Targeted therapy may be an option for advanced bladder tumors if other treatments haven’t worked.

Bladder tumor stages

The stage of bladder tumors may be determined by the degree of penetration of the tumor into the bladder wall, as follows:

  • papillomatosis Papillary is confined to the epithelium and does not go beyond the lamina propria.
  • Carcinoma in situ is a flat tumor that is directed through the mucous membrane and is located below the healthy mucosal layer, and therefore sometimes it cannot be detected and completely removed.
  • A tumor that crosses the lamina propria but does not penetrate the bladder muscle.
  • A tumor invading the inner half of the detrusor muscle.
  • A tumor targeting the outer half of the detrusor muscle.
  • A tumor with a fatty layer around the blood vessels.
  • A tumor that penetrates all the pelvic organs, or the pelvic wall.

There is also a microscopic classification of degrees of differentiation starting from 1 i.e. low grade to up to 3 i.e. high grade.

Symptoms of bladder tumors:-

The most common clinical symptoms of bladder cancer are:

  • Clarity of hemorrhage through Urinary Tract.
  • Hidden bleeding may be detected by laboratory examination of the urine.
  • Waist pain due to obstruction of the ureter due to bladder tumor.
  • Frequency of anxiety and pain in urination due to a tumor infiltrating the bladder wall.
  • Tumor attached to the neck of the bladder and ureter.

Bladder cancer types:

  • The most common type is urothelial carcinoma of what was previously called: Transitional cell carcinoma This type begins in the inner cells of the bladder, and can spread to other parts of the urinary system.
  • Other less common types: are squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and others.

The tumor is classified according to the penetration force of the tumor into the layers of the bladder:

  • Non-invasive/invasive cancer: Cancer that remains in the inner layer of the bladder and cannot reach the other layers.
  • Invasive cancer: It penetrates the other layers of the bladder wall, and it can spread and is difficult to treat.

Classification of the tumor according to the way the tumor grows:

  • Papilloma: It multiplies in a cylindrical way starting from the inner layer of the bladder towards the inside, which goes into the bladder, and this type is called: – Non-invasive papilloma.
  • Flat carcinoma (in situ): the growth is confined to the wall of the bladder only

Prevention and treatment of bladder tumors: –

Although there is no foolproof way to prevent bladder tumors, it is possible to take some steps to help reduce your risk. for example:

  • Quit Smoking. If you are not a smoker, you should not start smoking, and if you are a smoker, you should quit as soon as possible
  • Care should be taken when handling chemicals. If you take chemicals, follow all instructions to keep yourself safe to avoid exposure.
  • Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables: You must adhere to and choose a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables of various colors. The antioxidants in fruits and vegetables contribute to reducing your risk of developing tumors.

In the end

The treatment and prevention of bladder tumors and concern for health are summarized by adhering to the required instructions and instructions and following a healthy and healthy lifestyle that protects you from the risk of developing tumors

Source link

Like it? Share with your friends!