Learn about the main causes of cardiac catheterization

Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widespread medical procedures that have made clear progress in recent years in terms of its effectiveness and strength.

Learn about the main causes of cardiac catheterization

Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widespread medical procedures that have made clear progress in recent years in terms of its effectiveness and strength.

Hence, we know the reasons for cardiac catheterization, and it is also called (percutaneous coronary intervention) because it is a surgical procedure followed with the aim of opening blocked and narrowed cardiac arteries through Inserting and inflating a small balloon in the obstructed part of the artery, in a transitional manner, and most often what is done with cardiac catheterization.

A common procedure is placing a wire mesh tube called (stent) in order to contribute to keeping the artery open and reducing the chances of exposure to narrowing. Cardiac catheterization is used to reduce the accompanying symptoms For clogged arteries that represent chest pain and shortness of breath.

What are the causes of cardiac catheterization?

There are many reasons for cardiac catheterization, including the following:

  • The stiffness of the coronary arteries increases to see if there is a blockage or narrowing of the arteries.
  • Estimation and initiation of treatment of arrhythmia is one of the most important causes of cardiac catheterization.
  • Characterization and treatment of disparate heart valve disorders.
  • Estimation of left ventricular function.
  • Detection and analysis of diseases attached to the heart muscle and the pericardium (heart membrane).
  • Estimation of cases of heart failure.
  • Assessment and initiation of treatment of congenital heart diseases.
  • Measuring the hemodynamics of the heart, such as blood pressure and oxygen levels.
  • Take a biopsy of the heart muscle tissue.

During the cardiac catheterization process, all of the above different heart diseases can be corrected through many methods. It is considered one of the most important causes of cardiac catheterization, including the following:

  • Extension of the coronary arteries through balloon angioplasty or stenting.
  • Closure of the cardiac holes between the chambers of the heart.
  • Balloon replacement or dilation of the heart valves.
  • Treatment of irregular arrhythmia by ablation.
  • Closing part of the heart to prevent blood clots from forming.

About cardiac catheterization:

Cardiac catheterization involves inserting a very small hollow tube into a blood vessel through the arm or thigh, where the doctor supplies it until it reaches the coronary artery or the left side of the heart and when the tube reaches its path, many types of tests can be done, such as: The heart and blood sampling to measure oxygen levels.

The doctor may also inject a certain substance into the coronary arteries, which are the arteries that increase the heart muscle with the amount of blood it needs. This colored substance shows the extent of blood flow in the coronary arteries.

How to prepare for cardiac catheterization:

Causes of cardiac catheterization
  • A complete pathology is taken from the patient and a routine medical examination and some laboratory tests are performed, in addition to a chest x-ray and testing of electrical signals and their strength resulting from the heart.
  • It is recommended to double drinking fluids, meaning nutrients, before injecting the colored substance, and this is done to reduce the risks of affecting kidney function.
  • The patient must fast for at least 8 hours before the catheterization procedure.
  • During the operation, the patient is awake and the doctor may give analgesics or simple sedatives to reduce the patient’s feelings of fear, tension, discomfort and inconvenience.

What are the symptoms of heart disease:

Cardiac disorders are characterized by a group of symptoms that may be considered one of the causes of cardiac catheterization, including the following:

  • Feeling of pain and tightness at the site of the chest.
  • The presence of shortness of breath.
  • Feeling of pain and weakness in the body and numbness or excessive coldness in the extremities.
  • Pain in different areas such as the neck, jaw, throat, upper abdomen and back.

These symptoms may alert the presence of atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and differ between the sexes, men and women, for example, men may suffer more from chest pain, while women may suffer and be prone to shortness of breath, feeling sick or severe fatigue without feeling chest pain.

There are other symptoms that may indicate the presence of instability in the heartbeat, such as:

  • Feeling of panic and heart palpitations.
  • Feeling of light-headedness, dizziness or loss of consciousness.

If any of the above symptoms occur in the patient, it is recommended to visit your doctor or primary health care provider to perform the necessary examinations .

Cardiac catheterization risks:

  • An infection occurred in the incision in which the surgery was done.
  • The occurrence of bleeding can be the result of specific medications that the patient may suffer from bleeding, especially at the site of the operation, because the tissues are vulnerable to damage and this bleeding can affect the patient immediately after the catheter.
  • Risks in the anesthesia process itself, which are related to hypersensitivity to the patient and a sharp drop in blood pressure.
  • An injury to a blood vessel.
  • Bleeding may be a hematoma resulting from compliance with cardiac catheterization and its size ranges from small and in nature between benign to large, rapidly growing hematomas that may prevent the stability of blood vitality and require the patient to undergo resuscitation with many fluids, blood and some may also suffer from bleeding behind the abdominal membrane .
  • False vasodilatation is when the blood vessel wall is exposed to an injury so that the leaked blood collects in the surrounding tissues and differs from the true vasodilatation, as the true vascular weakness or vessels are accompanied by weakness and swelling.
  • The abnormal connection between the artery and the vein varies in size, length, location, and preparation. It may be congenital, hereditary, or acquired.
  • Dissection: The possibility of dissection increases in cases of exposure to atherosclerosis or tortuous arteries, and a large-volume dissection can cause severe shortage of vital tissue supply with food and oxygen in the extremities.
  • Embolization: Embolism occurs when a piece of blood clot, an abnormal object, or any other physical substance sticks in the blood vessel, preventing the flow of blood.
  • Thrombosis or Thrombosis: Thrombosis is the development of clots in the blood vessels, affecting the blood flow through them.

Other risks and harms that may result from complying with cardiac catheterization are as follows:

  • bruising
  • The presence of a disturbance in the heart rhythm due to contact with the heart muscle fibers during the operation.
  • Allergic reactions to dyes and medicines.
  • Cracks in the tissues of the heart and arteries.
  • Injury to the kidneys, spread of infection and necrotic death of the heart muscle.
  • The occurrence of stroke.
  • Accumulation of fats and other substances in the walls of the arteries.
  • Acute kidney failure, which is some rare cases of this failure, as well as shortness of breath and low blood pressure.
  • Radiation injury.
  • the death .

There are many factors that can increase the risk of this, such as advanced age, multiple vascular disease, left main coronary artery disease, or valvular heart disease such as stenosis of the aortic valve.

in the last

Cardiac catheterization for the purpose of treatment is one of the major operations heard on the ear raises many questions about the difficulties and causes of cardiac catheterization and how to perform it, which made the Shifa Center present this educational article in an attempt to provide and provide a simple explanation about the cardiac catheterization process, how to perform it and its potential risks through A group of cardiologists and consultants at Shifa Center.

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